Sunday, January 27, 2008

TOP FREEWARES

1 Best Free Web Browser

[1] http://www.mozilla.org/products/firefox/ (5.6MB)
Install Firefox Extensions
http://update.mozilla.org/extensions/
Install Plug-ins
http://plugindoc.mozdev.org/windows.html
See Firefox Keyboard Shortcuts
http://texturizer.net/Firefox/keyboard.html
Firefox pretty much like Internet Explorer however if you want to make it even more like IE
http://www.Firefoxie.net
Firefox Problem Solving
http://texturizer.net/firefox/faq.html

[2] http://www.opera.com/ (4.6MB)

[4] http://www.maxthon.com/index.htm (1.9MB)

[5] http://www.avantbrowser.com/ (1.86MB)

[6] http://kmeleon.sourceforge.net/ (6MB)

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2 Best Free Anti-Virus Software

[1] http://www.free-av.com/ (8.7MB)
[2] http://free.grisoft.com/freeweb.php/doc/2/ (16.0MB)
[3] http://www.avast.com/eng/avast_4_home.html (8.8MB)
avast! External Control (also known as AEC)
: http://www.excessive-software.eu.tt
[4] http://www.bitdefender.com/PRODUCT-14-en--BitDefender-8-Free-Edition.html (13.2MB)
[5] http://www.activevirusshield.com/antivirus/freeav/index.adp? (13.9MB)



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3. Best Free Standalone Scanner

[1]Malicious Software Removal Tool
[2] Multi Virus Cleaner 2007
[] ClamAV for USB

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4. Best Free Adware/Spyware/Scumware Remover

[1] http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?FamilyID=435bfce7-da2b-4a6a-afa4-f7f14e605a0d&displaylang=en ( 6.4MB)
legal version of Windows XP SP2 and modern PC required
[2] http://www.spywareterminator.com/ (2.3MB)
works with all versions of Windows
[3] http://www.javacoolsoftware.com/spywareblaster.html Freeware, all Windows version, 2.5MB
Users of earlier Windows versions may want to check out ,SpywareBlaster is most effective with Internet Explorer
[4] http://www.javacoolsoftware.com/spywareguard.html Freeware, All Windows versions, 913KB


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5. Best Free Virtualisation Software

[1] http://www.celceo.com/index.php?src=prodabt
[2] http://www.sandboxie.com/ Free for personal use, Win2K and later, 310KB


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6. Best Free Firewall

[1] http://www.personalfirewall.comodo.com/ (8MB)requires Windows 2000 or XP SP2.
very robust and it comes with a well designed intrusion detection system as well,supports internet connection sharing
[2] http://www.sunbelt-software.com/Kerio.cfm (7.3MB)
product will also nag you every time you start it.
[3] http://www.jetico.com/index.htm#/jpfirewall.htm[ (2.7MB)
[4] http://www.netveda.com/consumer/safetynet.htm (6.3MB)
performance is quite outstanding and it offers application control and content filtering as well, for experienced users
[5] http://www.zonelabs.com/store/content/company/products/znalm/freeDownload.jsp (9.0MB)
First it is a very basic product compared to the commercial ZoneAlarm Pro version


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7. Best Free Trojan Scanner/Trojan Remover

[1] http://www.ewido.net/en/download/ (6.17MB)works with Windows 2000 and later
Note: The free version of AVG Anti-Spyware is actually the same as the paid version but after 30 days the active protection (i.e. memory monitor) becomes non-functional, automatic updates are disabled and kernel level self protection is turned off.
[2] http://www.emsisoft.com/en/software/free/ (13.2MB) for Win 9X users


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8. Best Free Rootkit Scanner/Remover

[1] http://www.pandasoftware.com/products/antirootkit/ freeware, Windows 2K, XP.353KB
alt. download http://www.majorgeeks.com/Panda_Anti-Rootkit_d5457.html
[2] http://www.microsoft.com/technet/sysinternals/utilities/RootkitRevealer.mspx Freeware, All Windows, 231KB,
for experienced user,
consult the SysInternals RootkitRevealer forum http://www.sysinternals.com/Forum/default.asp
[3]http://www.gmer.net/ Freeware, Windows NT/ 2K/XP/Vista, 450KB ,For experienced users top recommendation
[4] http://majorgeeks.com/Icesword_d5199.html Freeware, Windows NT/2K/XP, 2.1MB
[5] http://www.softpedia.com/get/Antivirus/DarkSpy-Anti-Rootkit.shtml Windows 2K/XP/2003, 626KB

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9.Best Free Disk De-fragmenter

[1] http://www.majorgeeks.com/Diskeeper_Lite_d1207.html (older and free version from Executive Software's) Freeware, all Windows versions,12.1MB
There are few complaints about the annoying nag screen. the nag screen can be removed by following the instructions

you can get version 9 of Diskeeper Lite. It forms an element of Intel's large (89MB) Desktop Utilities package which can be downlaodable from the Intel site below . If you unzip the file you'll see Diskeeper V9 Lite in the folder ../3rdparty/Diskeeper/. I it seems perfectly legitimate way to obtain the program on a single computer . Download from here .
http://www.intel.com/design/motherbd/software/idu/ (89MB)
[2] http://www.auslogics.com/disk-defrag/index.php Freeware, all Windows versions, 1.4MB
fast, has a nice disk map, lots of stats and is really easy to use,pretty basic ,simple and speed.
[3]http://www.kessels.com/JkDefrag/JkDefrag-3.26.zip(402kb) for Windows 2000/2003/XP/Vista
http://www.kessels.com/JkDefrag/JkDefrag64-3.26.zip(391kb) for Windows X64
Free (released under the GNU General Public License) disk defragment ,Completely automatic and very easy to use, fast, low overhead, with several optimization strategies, and can handle floppies and USB disks/sticks. Included are a Windows version, a commandline version (for scheduling by the task scheduler or for use from administrator scripts), a screensaver version, a DLL library (for use from programming languages), and versions for Windows X64. and scheduler option.
{4] http://www.microsoft.com/technet/sysinternals/utilities/Contig.mspx Freeware, NT and later, 55KB
a robust, free, command line utility which defrags one file at a time. It's fast, and safe ,eXcessive software has built an excellent user interface for Contig called "Power Defragmenter" Download from below .
http://www.excessive-software.tk/ Freeware, NT and later, 397KB

Upgrading Your PC


Upgrading Your PC

Introduction

EARLIER IT IS THE PEROGATIVE OF COMPUTER ENGINEERS AND WITH DUE COURSE OF TIME AND WITH THE VAAILABILITY OF MUCH INFORMATIONS FROM VARIOUS SOURCES AND AWARENESS AMONG PUBLIC , THE FEAR PSYCHOSIS IS REDUCING AMONG THE LAYMAN. AS THE NATURE OF MAN ALWAYS TO EXPLORE THE IN EVITABLE AND THIS VERY REASON COMPELLS THE MAN TO STEP IN THIS DIRECTION OF COURSE AFTER GARNERING ENOUGH KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESSES.


• THE IMPORTANT THINGS YOU MUST BE RMEMEBERING AND TAKING CARE OF BEFORE UPGRADING YOUR PC.

CHECKPC shutdown INTERVALS AND ALSO SEE IF IT IS HANGING ON FOR WHATSO EVER NO REASON TO BE PUT ON THE TABLE . KEEP THE POWER SUPPLY LIKE CAPACITOR OR SOME OTHER COMPONENT CHECKED.
OVER HEATING MAY BE ONE OF THE PROBLEM AND IN THIS CASE OYU MAY ADD ONE MORE FAN OR ALSO KEEP THE WIRED CABLES IN THE PROPER ORDER SO THAT WIND MAY NOT BE BLOCKED IN BETWEEN.

AND GET A HARD DISK FAN. THIS CAN BE MOUNTED EITHER DIRECTLY ABOVE THE HARD DISK OR RIGHT IN FRONT OF IT. IF IT IS MOUNTED ABOVE THE HARD DISK, IT WILL TAKE UP THE SPACE OF ONE IDE DRIVE, BUT IT WILL BE WORTH IT. CAN DO ANOTHER SIMPLE THING TO INCREASE THE LIFE OF YOUR HARD DISK: GO TO THE POWER SAVER SETTINGS IN WINDOWS AND SET THE HARD DISKS TO TURN OF AFTER 3, 5, OR 10 MINUTES OF IDLING.

IF YOUR WINDOWS RUNNING SLOWLY THAT YOU HAVE ANTICIAPTED THEN TRY TO BUY MORE RAM , AS JUST REMEMEBR THAT WINDOWS XP TAKES LOTS OF RAM TO RUN MORE SMOOTHLY , HP WILL BE HAPPIER TO RECEIVE MORE AND MORE RAM , SO MAKE IT 512 MB OR 1 GB AND FOR THIS TEEL YOUR VENDOUR ALL THE REQUIREMENTS AND HE WILL BE TELLING YOU THE CAPAPCITY OF RAM WHICH YOUR REQUIRES.


IF YOU HAVE THE OLD COMPUTER WITH COMAPRATIVE GOOD SPEAKERS AND SOUND QUALITY NOT HIGH THEN CHECK OFR THE NEW SOUND CARD THAT MAY WORK WELL FOR THIS CASE .

IF YOU PC IS TAD SLOW THEN MAKE A THROUGH SCAN WITH THE FULLY UPDATED PROFESSIONAL VURIS SCANNER AND ALSO ANTI SPYWARE SCANNER AND ALSO RUN CCLEANER TO CLEAN THE UNNECESSRY FILES , AS SIMPLY UPGRADING THE PROCESSOR WILL NOT WORK YOU HAVE TO SEE THE ALL THE REQUIREMENTS SO THST SYSTEM WILL FUNCTION NORMAL AND SMOOTH.

CHOOSE THE RIGHT COMBINATIONS OF ANTI VIRUS, ANTI SPYWARE , FIREWALL AND HIPS AND FOR THIS SEE MY EARLIER ARTICLES AND IN THE MARKET LOTS OF FREEWARE AVAILABLE WHICH YOU DONONT HAVE TO SPEND A PIE FOR FULL PROOF SEUCURITY. AS WRONG COMBINATIONS OF THESE SECURITY PRODUCTS MAY CAUSE THE PC TO RUN SLOW SOME TIMES.



IF YOU SYSTEM IS REBOOTING CONSTANT LY THEN UPGRADE TO WINDOWS XP AS IT IS MORE STABLE IN FACT ABOVE 90 PC MORE STABLE THAN THE WINDOWS 98.

GMAIL TOOLS

GMAIL TOOLS

firefox addon that turns your gmail account into powerful online storage tool: Gspace

manage multiple GMail accounts from your browser : GMail Manager

removes ads, switches from http to https, hides spam counter, quick contacts box
CustomizeGoogle

integrates Google Reader into Gmail. : Google Reader Integration

adds keyboard shortcuts to Gmail : Gmail Macros

outgoing emails encrypts : Gmail Encrypt

virtual drive Gmail Drive to ‘My Computer‘ folder : GmailDrive
for windows and for MAC users : gDisk

GMAIL DESKTOP NOTIFIER: OFFICIAL: GMail Notifier , GTray WIN XP , GCount
(MaC)

access gmail from places where it’s blocked : Unbl0ck

shortcuts for the Gmail : Shortcut List

EMAIL SHORTCUTS

E-mail Shortcuts


AFAIK—As Far As I Know
ASAP—As Soon As Possible
BTW—By The Way
FAQ(s)—Frequently Asked Question(s)
FWIW—For What It’s Worth
FYI—For Your Information
GDR—Grinning, Ducking and Running
HTH—Hope This Helps
IAC—In Any Case
IANAL—I Am Not A Lawyer
IMHO—In My Humble Opinion
IOW—In Other Words
LOL—Laughing Out Loud
NDA—Non-Disclosure Agreement
OTOH—On The Other Hand
PITA—Pain In The Axiom
QA—Quality Assurance
Q&A—Question &Answer
ROFL—Rolling On the Floor ,Laughing
RTFM—Read The Fine Manual
TIA—Thanks In Advance
TS—Tech Support
TTFN—“Ta Ta For Now” (├ála Tigger from Winnie the Pooh)
WAD—Works As Designed
WRT—With Respect To

Free Online Service Offers Alternative to Powerpoint


Free Online Service Offers Alternative to Powerpoint

Preezo allows you to create and use presentations directly from their site and these can be mailed directly to yours choicest location .

LINK

A Fast Alternative to Add/Remove Programs


A Fast Alternative to Add/Remove Programs

Windows ADD and Remove is agonising slow and borish , making and delaying the tasks required , and also wasting the time , Safarp is a free Open Source replacement for Add and Remove programme , it loads in a blink of an eye , it also has additional functionality like ability to search for a program and remove defunct entries , and the most wonderful behaviour of this programme is that it can be run on usb drive as stand alone programme or it can be installed on the hard drive and can be integrated in to the Control Panel behaviour ,


freeware , open source , Windows 2000 and later, 133KB.


LINK:

Sumatra PDF A PDF Viewer for Windows


Sumatra PDF
A PDF Viewer for Windows


What is Sumatra PDF?
Sumatra PDF is a slim, free, open-source PDF viewer for Windows.
Why another PDF reader?
Sumatra has a minimalistic design. Simplicity has a higher priority than a lot of features.
It's small and starts up very fast.
It's designed for portable use: it's just one file with no external dependencies so you can easily run it from external USB drive.

Download
INSTALLER:
Zip file :

SCREEN SHOT :


License
Sumatra PDF is distriuted under GPLv2 license.

SUMATRA FORUMS:
WRITTEN BY : Krzysztof Kowalczyk

Ultimate List of Free Software from Microsoft


Free Software from Microsoft

Ultimate List of Free Software from Microsoft , over 150 feebies
LINK



List of Free Software from Microsoft of MS Office
LINK

SUPPORT FOR WINDOWS 98


Microsoft has abandoned its support for Windows 98 , Windows 98 site is still being updated , is a worth a visit for all Win98 users , the contents are amazing and wonderful and also it is also providing a downloadable unofficial Windows 98 Service Pack 2 and lots of useful and astonishing tutorials . The sites turotrial may be difficulty but its contents are wortha million dollars ! Great tips and utilities available here , just go on check it out , even if you are not the windows 98 users.




LINK

TYPES OF STORAGE DEVICES

TYPES OF STORAGE DEVICES

1. CATEGORIZING STORAGE DEVICES

2. MAGNETIC STORAGE DEVICES

3. OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICES




1. CATEGORIZING STORAGE DEVICES

• Storage devices hold data, even when the computer is turned of.

• The physical material that actualy holds data is caled a storage medium. The surface of a floppy disk is a storage medium.

• The hardware that writes data to or reads data from a storage medium is caled a storage device. A floppy disk drive is a storage device.

• The two primary storage technologies are magnetic and optical.



The primary types of magnetic storage are:

• Disketes (floppy disks)

• Hard disks

• High-capacity floppy disks

• Disk cartridges

• Magnetic tape



The primary types of optical storage are:

• Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM)

• Digital Video Disk Read-Only Memory (DVD-ROM)

o CD-Recordable (CD-R)

• CD-Rewritable (CD-RW)

• PhotoCD




2. MAGNETIC STORAGE DEVICES



- How Magnetic Storage Works

• A magnetic disk's medium contains iron particles, which can be polarized—given a magnetic charge—in one of two directions.

• Each particle's direction represents a 1 (on) or 0 (of), representing each bit of data that the CPU can recognize.

• A disk drive uses read/write heads containing electromagnets to create magnetic charges on the medium.


-Formatting

• Before a magnetic disk can be used, it must be formated—a process that maps the disk's surface and determines how data wil be stored.

• During formating, the drive creates circular tracks around the disk's surface, then divides each track into sectors.

• The OS organizes sectors into groups, caled clusters, then tracks each file's location according to the clusters it occupies.



-Disk Areas

When a disk is formated, the OS creates four areas on its surface:

• Boot sector – stores the master boot record, a smalL program that runs when you first start (boot) the computer.

• File alocation table (FAT) – a log that records each file's location and each sector's status

• Root folder – enables the user to store data on the disk in a logical way

• Data area – the portion of the disk that actualy holds data



-Diskettes

• Diskete drives,alsoknown as floppy disk drives, read and write to disketes (caled floppy disks or floppies).

• Disketes are used to transfer files between computers, as a means for distributing software,and as a backup medium.
• •Disketes come in two sizes: 5.25-inch and 3.5-inch.



-Hard Disks

• Hard disks use multiple platers, stacked on a spindle. Each plater has two read/write heads, one for each side.

• Hard disks use higher-quality media and a faster rotational speed than disketes.

• Removable hard disks combine high capacity with the convenience of disketes.


-Disk Capacities

• Disketes are available in diferent capacities, but the most common store 1.44 MB.

• Hard disks storelarge amounts of data. New PCs feature hard disks with capacities of 10 GB and higher.



-Other Magnetic Storage Devices

• High-capacity floppy disks ofer capacities up to 250 MB and the portability of standard floppy disks.

• Disk cartridges are like smal removable hard disks, and can store up to 2 GB.

• Magnetic tape systems ofer very slow data access, but provide large capacities and low cost.



3. OPTICAL STORAGE DEVICES


-How Optical Storage Works

• An optical disk is a high-capacity storage medium.
• An optical drive uses reflected light to read data.
• To store data, the disk's metal surface is covered with tiny dents (pits) and flat spots (lands), which cause light to be reflected diferently.
• When an optical drive shines light into a pit, the light cannot be reflected back. This represents a bit value of 0 (of). A land reflects light back to its source, representing a bit value of 1 (on).


-CD-ROM

• In PCs, the most commonly usedoptical storage technology is called Compact Disk Read-Only Memory (CD-ROM).

• A standard CD-ROM disk can store up to 650 MB of data, or about 70 minutes of audio.

• Once data is writen toa standard CD-ROM disk, the data cannot be altered or overwriten.


-CD-ROM Speeds and Uses

• Early CD-ROM drives were caled single speed, and read data at a rate of 150 KBps. (Hard disks transfer data at rates of 5 – 15 MBps).

• CD-ROM drives now can transfer data at speeds of up to 7800 KBps. Data transfer speeds are geting faster.
• CD-ROM is typicaly used to store software programs. CDs can store audio and video data, as wel as text and program instructions.


-DVD-ROM

• A variation of CD-ROM is caled Digital Video Disk Read-Only Memory (DVD-ROM), and is being used in place of CD-ROM in many newer PCs.

• Standard DVD disks store up to 9.4 GB of data—enough to store an entire movie. Dual-layer DVD disks can store up to 17 GB.

• DVD disks can store so much data because both sides of the disk are used, along with sophisticated data compression technologies.


-Other Optical Storage Devices

• A CD-Recordable (CD-R) drive lets you record your own CDs, but data cannot be overwriten once it is recorded to the disk.

• A CD-Rewritable (CD-RW) drive lets you record a CD, then write new data over the already recorded data.

• PhotoCD technology is used to store digital photographs.

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THE USER INTERFACE

THE USER INTERFACE



1. Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)


•Most modern operating systems, like Windows and
the Macintosh OS, provide a graphical user interface
(GUI).

•A GUI lets youcontrol the system by using a mouse
to click graphical objects on screen.

•A GUI is based on the desktop metaphor. Graphical
objects appear on a background (the desktop),
representing resources you can use.



2. GUI Tools


• Icons are pictures that represent computer
resources, such as printers, documents, and
programs.

• You double-click an icon to choose (activate) it, for
instance, to launch a program.

• The Windows operating system ofers two unique
tools, caled the taskbar and Start buton. These
help you run and manage programs.



3. -Applications and the Interface


• Applications designed to run under one operating
system usesimilarinterface elements.

• Under an OS such as Windows, you see a familiar
interface no mater what programs you use.

• In a GUI, each program opens and runs in a separate
window—a frame that presents the program and its
documents.

• In a GUI, you can run multiple programs at once,
each in a separate window. The application in use is
said to be the active window.



4. -Menus


•GUI-based programs let you isue commands by
choosing them from menus.

•A menu groups related commands. For example, the
File menu's commands let you open, save, and print
document files.

•Menus let you avoid memorizing and typing
command names.

•In programs designed for the same GUI, menus and
commands are similar from one program to another.



5. -Dialog Boxes


•A dialog box is a special window that appears when
a programor the OS needs more information
before completing a task.

•Dialog boxes are so named because they conduct a
"dialog" with the user, asking the user to provide
more information ormake choices.



6. -Command-Line Interfaces

• Some older operating systems, such as DOS and
UNIX, use command-line interfaces.

• In a command-line interface,you type commands at a
prompt.

• Under command-line interfaces, individual
applications do not need to look or function the same
way, so diferent programs can look very diferent
_____________________________________________________________
RUNNING PROGRAMS

1. BASIC SERVICES

2. SHARING INFORMATION

3. MULTITASKING


1. Basic Services

• The operating system manages al the other programs that run on the PC.
• The operating system provides services to programs and the user, including file management, memory management, and printing
• To provide services to programs, theOSmakes system cals—requesting other hardware and software resources to perform tasks.



2. Sharing Information

• Some operating systems, such as Windows, enable programs to share information.
• You can create data in one program and use it again in other programs without re-creating it.
• Windows provides the Clipboard, a special area that stores data cut or copied from one document, so you can re-use it elsewhere.


3. Multitasking

• Multitasking is the capability of running multiple proceses simultaneously.
• A multitasking OSlets you run multiple programs at the same time.
• Through multitasking, you can do several chores at one time, such as printing a document while downloading a file from the Internet.
• There are two types of multitasking: cooperative and preemptive.


__________________________________________________________--

OPERATING SYSTEM BASICS

OPERATING SYSTEM BASICS



• The User Interface

• Running Programs

• Managing Files

• Managing Hardware

• Utility Software



The User Interface



- Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs)


•Most modern operating systems, like Windows and
the Macintosh OS, provide a graphical user interface
(GUI).

•A GUI lets youcontrol the system by using a mouse
to click graphical objects on screen.

•A GUI is based on the desktop metaphor. Graphical
objects appear on a background (the desktop),
representing resources you can use.



-GUI Tools


• Icons are pictures that represent computer
resources, such as printers, documents, and
programs.

• You double-click an icon to choose (activate) it, for
instance, to launch a program.

• The Windows operating system ofers two unique
tools, caled the taskbar and Start buton. These
help you run and manage programs.



-Applications and the Interface


• Applications designed to run under one operating
system usesimilarinterface elements.

• Under an OS such as Windows, you see a familiar
interface no mater what programs you use.

• In a GUI, each program opens and runs in a separate
window—a frame that presents the program and its
documents.

• In a GUI, you can run multiple programs at once,
each in a separate window. The application in use is
said to be the active window.



-Menus


•GUI-based programs let you isue commands by
choosing them from menus.

•A menu groups related commands. For example, the
File menu's commands let you open, save, and print
document files.

•Menus let you avoid memorizing and typing
command names.

•In programs designed for the same GUI, menus and
commands are similar from one program to another.



-Dialog Boxes


•A dialog box is a special window that appears when
a programor the OS needs more information
before completing a task.

•Dialog boxes are so named because they conduct a
"dialog" with the user, asking the user to provide
more information ormake choices.



-Command-Line Interfaces

• Some older operating systems, such as DOS and
UNIX, use command-line interfaces.

• In a command-line interface,you type commands at a
prompt.

• Under command-line interfaces, individual
applications do not need to look or function the same
way, so diferent programs can look very diferent




Running Programs



-Basic Services

•The operating system manages al the other
programs that run on the PC.

•The operating system provides services to programs
and the user, including file management, memory
management, and printing

•To provide services to programs, theOSmakes
system cals—requesting other hardware and
software resources to perform tasks.


- Sharing Information

• Some operating systems, such as Windows, enable
programs to share information.

• You can create data in one program and use it again
in other programs without re-creating it.

• Windows provides the Clipboard, a special area that
stores data cut or copied from one document, so you
can re-use it elsewhere.


-Multitasking

•Multitasking is the capability of running multiple
proceses simultaneously.

•A multitasking OSlets you run multiple programs at
the same time.

•Through multitasking, you can do several chores at
one time, such as printing a document while
downloading a file from the Internet.

•There are two types of multitasking: cooperative and
preemptive.




Managing Files



• The operating system keeps track of al the files on
each disk.

• Users can make file management easier by creating
a hierarchical file system that includes folders and
subfolders arranged in a logical order.



Managing Hardware


•The OS uses interrupt requests (IRQs) to maintain
organized communication with the CPU and other
pieces of hardware.

•Each hardware device is controled by a piece of
software, called a driver, which allows the OS to
activate and use the device.

•The operating system provides the software necessary
to link computers and form a network.



Utility Software


A utility is a program that performs a task that is not
typically handled by the operating system.

Some utilities enhance the operating system's
functionality.

Some of the major categories of utilities include:
• File defragmentation
• Data compression
• Backup
• Antivirus
• Screen savers


_____________________________________________________

MEASURING DRIVE PERFORMANCE

MEASURING DRIVE PERFORMANCE


1. AVERAGE ACCESS TIME

•In storage devices, average acces time (or seek
time) is thetime required for a read/write head to
move to a spot on the storage medium.

•For storage devices, access time is measured in
miliseconds (ms), or thousandths of a second. In
memory, access time is measured in nanoseconds
(ns), or one-bilionths of a second.

•Diskete drives ofer an average access time of 100
ms. Hard drives are faster, usualy between 6 – 12
ms.



2. FILE COMPRESSION

•File compression technologyshrinks files so they take
up less disk space.

•Using a compression utility, you can shrink multiple
files into a single archive file.

•Utilities such as Windows' DriveSpace enable you to
compress the entire contents of yourhard disk.



3. DATA-TRANSFER RATE

•Data-transfer rate (or throughput) measures the time
required for data to travel from one device to another.

•If a device transfers 45,000 bytes per second, its data-
transfer rate is 45 KBps.

•Hard disks ofer the fastest data-transfer rates of any
storage device.



4. DRIVE-INTERFACE STANDARDS

•Al PCs use a disk controler as an interface between
a disk drive and the CPU. The two most common
interface standards are EIDE and SCSI.

•EIDE has evolved over the years and has several
variants, al of which have diferent names.

•SCSI is a faster, more flexible drive-interface
standard found in high-performance computers.




_______________________________________________________

CPUS USED IN PERSONAL COMPUTERS

CPUS USED IN PERSONAL COMPUTERS


• Intel Processors

• AMD Processors

• Cyrix Procesors

• Motorola Processors

• RISC Processors



INTEL PROCESSORS

•Since 1978, Intel's processors have evolved from the
8086 and the 8088 to the 80286, 80386, and 80486, to
the Pentium family of procesors. Al are part of the
80x86 line.

•Intel's Pentium family of procesors includes the
Pentium, Pentium Pro, Pentium with MMX, Pentium
II, Pentium II, Pentium IV, Celeron, and Xeon
procesors.

•The earliest Intel procesors included only a few
thousand transistors. Today's Pentium procesors
include 9.5 milion transistors or more.

•Intel knows that big numbers are impressive so they
have focused on developing faster procesors as
opposed to beter processors. Intel's processors
perform wel in streaming multimedia type
applications, but they do not perform quite as wel in
ofice or productivity type applications.

•Under the Intel name there are 2 main consumer
lines: the Pentium, and the Celeron. The major
diference between these two is the fact that the
Celeron's contain less internal cache. Internal cache is like temporarystorage within the procesor itself, it
gives the processor a shorter time between command
executions.


AMD PROCESSORS

• Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) was long known as a
provider of lower-performance procesors for use in
low-cost computers.

AMD performs beter for productivity or ofice based
applications like word procesing, web browsing, and
email. AMDs are also typicaly cheaper than Intels.

• With its K6 line of procesors, AMD chalenged Intel's
procesors in terms of both price and performance.

• With the K6-III processor, AMD broke the 600 MHz
barrier, claiming the "fastest processor" title for the
first time in IBM-compatible computers.



CYRIX PROCESSORS

• Cyrix began as a specialtychip maker, but eventualy
began producing microprocessors.

• Cyrix processors are most commonly used in low-
price, low-end consumer PCs.

• Cyrix formerly produced the MediaGX processor, and
nowproduces the MII series of processors.



MOTOROLA PROCESSORS

• Motorola makes the CPUs used in Macintosh and
PowerPC computers.

• Macintosh procesors use a diferent basic structural
design (architecture) than IBM-compatible PC
procesors.

• With the release of the G3 and G4PowerPC processors,
Macintosh computers set new standards for price and
performance.


MOTOROLA PROCESSORS

• Motorola makes the CPUs used in Macintosh and
PowerPC computers.

• Macintosh procesors use a diferent basic structural
design (architecture) than IBM-compatible PC
procesors.

• With the release of the G3 and G4PowerPC processors,
Macintosh computers set new standards for price and
performance.



CISC AND RISC PROCESSORS


•Every CPU has the built-in ability to execute a
particular set of machine instructions, caled its
instruction set.

•Most CPU have 200 or more instructions (such as
add, subtract and compare) in their instruction set.

•CPU made by diferent manufacturer have diferent
instruction sets.

•When new CPU is developed it is ensured that its
instruction set includes al the instructions in the
instruction set of its predecessor CPU, plus some new
ones : upward compatibility

•MostPCsare based on complexinstructionset computing
(CISC)chips which containlargeinstructionsets.

•CSIC procesorsareCPUwith largeinstructionsets, variable-
lengthinstructionsand varietyofaddresing modes.

•Reducedinstructionsetcomputing(RISC)procesors use
smalerinstructionsets. Thisenables them to proces more
instructionspersecond than(CISC) chips.

•RISC procesorare CPUs with asmal instruction sets,fixed
lengthinstructions.

•RISC procesorsarefound in Apple'sPowerPC systems,as wel
as many H/PCs, workstations, minicomputers,and mainframes.

•EPIC Procesors (Explicitly ParalelInstruction Computing)
technology is fast emerging as the technologyforthenext
generationprocesors.HP andIntel havealready adopted itin
defining their 64-bit ISA knownas IA-64



PARALEL PROCESSING

•In paralel processing, multiple procesors are used in a
single system, enabling them to share procesing tasks.

•In a massively paralel processor (MPP) system, many
procesors are used.

•Some MPP systems utilize thousands of processors
simultaneously.


**************************************************************

Sunday, January 20, 2008

SIX SIGMA

                                                     SIX SIGMA

Six sigma holds that any process outcomes that are within sixstandard deviations from the mean must be acceptable. (The Greek letter sigmais the traditional symbol for standard deviation in statistics.)

Why SixSigma?

For Motorola, theoriginator of Six Sigma, the answer to the question "Why Six Sigma?"was simple: survival. Motorola came to Six Sigma because it was beingconsistently beaten in the competitive marketplace by foreign firms that wereable to produce higher quality products at a lower cost. When a Japanese firmtook over a Motorola factory that manufactured Quasar television sets in the United Statesin the 1970s, they promptly set about making drastic changes in the way the factoryoperated.  Under Japanese management, thefactory was soon producing TV sets with 1/20th the number of defectsthey had produced under Motorola management. They did this using the sameworkforce, technology, and designs, making it clear that the problem wasMotorola's management. Eventually, even Motorola's own executives had to admit"our quality stinks,"

Finally, in themid 1980s, Motorola decided to take quality seriously. Motorola's CEO at thetime, Bob Galvin, started the company on the quality path known as Six Sigmaand became a business icon largely as a result of what he accomplished inquality at Motorola. Today, Motorola is known worldwide as a quality leader anda profit leader. After Motorola won the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Awardin 1988 the secret of their success became public knowledge and the Six Sigmarevolution was on. Today it's hotter than ever.

It would be amistake to think that Six Sigma is about quality in the traditional sense.Quality, defined traditionally as conformance to internal requirements, haslittle to do with Six Sigma. Six Sigma is about helping the organization makemore money. To link this objective of Six Sigma with quality requires a newdefinition of quality. For Six Sigma purposes I define quality as the valueadded by a productive endeavor. Quality comes in two flavors: potentialquality and actual quality. Potential quality is the known maximumpossible value added per unit of input. Actual quality is the current valueadded per unit of input. The difference between potential and actual quality iswaste. Six Sigma focuses on improving quality (i.e., reducing waste) byhelping organizations produce products and services better, faster and cheaper.In more traditional terms, Six Sigma focuses on defect prevention, cycle timereduction, and cost savings. Unlike mindless cost-cutting programs which reducevalue and quality, Six Sigma identifies and eliminates costs which provide novalue to customers: waste costs.

For non-Six Sigmacompanies, these costs are often extremely high. Companies operating at threeor four sigma typically spend between 25 and 40 percent of their revenuesfixing problems. This is known as the cost of quality, or more accurately thecost of poor quality. Companies operating at Six Sigma typically spend lessthan 5 percent of their revenues fixing problems (Figure 1). The dollar cost ofthis gap can be huge. General Electric estimates that the gap between three orfour sigma and Six Sigma was costing them between $8 billion and $12 billionper year.

Sigma Level Chart

What isSix Sigma?

Six Sigma is arigorous, focused and highly effective implementation of proven qualityprinciples and techniques. Incorporating elements from the work of many qualitypioneers, Six Sigma aims for virtually error free business performance. Sigma,, is a letter in the Greek alphabet used by statisticians to measure thevariability in any process. A company's performance is measured by the sigmalevel of their business processes. Traditionally companies accepted three orfour sigma performance levels as the norm, despite the fact that theseprocesses created between 6,200 and 67,000 problems per million opportunities!The Six Sigma standard of 3.4 problems per million opportunities is a responseto the increasing expectations of customers and the increased complexity ofmodern products and processes.

If you're looking for new techniques, don't bother. Six Sigma'smagic isn't in statistical or high-tech razzle-dazzle. Six Sigma relies ontried and true methods that have been around for decades. In fact, Six Sigmadiscards a great deal of the complexity that characterized Total QualityManagement (TQM). By one expert's count, there were over 400 TQM tools andtechniques. Six Sigma takes a handful of proven methods and trains a smallcadre of in-house technical leaders, known as Six Sigma Black Belts, to ahigh level of proficiency in the application of these techniques. To be sure,some of the methods used by Black Belts are highly advanced, including the useof up-to-date computer technology. But the tools are applied within a simpleperformance improvement model known as DMAIC, or Define-Measure-Analyze-Improve-Control.DMAIC can be described as follows:

D

Define the goals of the improvement activity. At the top level the goals will be the strategic objectives of the organization, such as a higher ROI or market share. At the operations level, a goal might be to increase the throughput of a production department. At the project level goals might be to reduce the defect level and increase throughput. Apply data mining methods to identify potential improvement opportunities.

M

Measure the existing system. Establish valid and reliable metrics to help monitor progress towards the goal(s) defined at the previous step. Begin by determining the current baseline. Use exploratory and descriptive data analysis to help you understand the data.

A

Analyze the system to identify ways to eliminate the gap between the current performance of the system or process and the desired goal. Apply statistical tools to guide the analysis.

I

Improve the system. Be creative in finding new ways to do things better, cheaper, or faster. Use project management and other planning and management tools to implement the new approach. Use statistical methods to validate the improvement.

C

Control the new system. Institutionalize the improved system by modifying compensation and incentive systems, policies, procedures, MRP, budgets, operating instructions and other management systems. You may wish to utilize systems such as ISO 9000 to assure that documentation is correct.

 

Infrastructure

A very powerfulfeature of Six Sigma is the creation of an infrastructure to ensure thatperformance improvement activities have the necessary resources. From researchit is known that failure to provide this infrastructure is the #1 reason why80% of all TQM implementations failed in the past. Six Sigma makes improvementand change the full-time job of a small but critical percentage of theorganization's personnel. These full time change agents are the catalyst thatinstitutionalizes change. Figure 2 illustrates the required human resourcecommitment required by Six Sigma.

Six Sigma Revolution



Leadership

Six Sigmainvolves changing major business value streams that cut across organizationalbarriers. It is the means by which the organization's strategic goals are to beachieved. This effort cannot be led by anyone other than the CEO, who isresponsible for the performance of the organization as a whole. Six Sigma mustbe implemented from the top-down.

Championsand Sponsors

Six Sigmachampions are high-level individuals who understand Six Sigma and are committedto its success. In larger organizations Six Sigma will be led by a full time,high level champion, such as an Executive Vice-President. In all organizations,champions also include informal leaders who use Six Sigma in their day-to-daywork and communicate the Six Sigma message at every opportunity. Sponsors areowners of processes and systems who help initiate and coordinate Six Sigmaimprovement activities in their areas of responsibilities.

MasterBlack Belt

This is thehighest level of technical and organizational proficiency.  Master Black Belts provide technicalleadership of the Six Sigma program. Thus, they must know everything the Black Belts know, as well asunderstand the mathematical theory on which the statistical methods arebased.  Master Black Belts must be ableto assist Black Belts in applying the methods correctly in unusual situations.  Whenever possible, statistical training shouldbe conducted only by Master Black Belts. Otherwise the familiar "propagation of error" phenomenon willoccur, i.e., Black Belts pass on errors to green belts, who pass on greatererrors to team members.  If it becomesnecessary for Black Belts and Green Belts to provide training, they should doonly so under the guidance of Master Black Belts.  For example, Black Belts may be asked toprovide assistance to the Master during class discussions and exercises.  Because of the nature of the Master's duties,communications and teaching skills are as important as technical competence.

BlackBelt

Candidates forBlack Belt status are technically oriented individuals held in high regard bytheir peers.  They should be activelyinvolved in the process of organizational change and development. Candidatesmay come from a wide range of disciplines and need not be formally trainedstatisticians or engineers.  However,because they are expected to master a wide variety of technical tools in arelatively short period of time, Black Belt candidates will probably possess abackground including college-level mathematics and the basic tool ofquantitative analysis.  Coursework instatistical methods may be considered a strong plus or even a prerequisite. Aspart of their training, Black Belts receive 160 hours of classroominstruction, plus one-on-one project coaching from Master Black Belts orconsultants.

Successfulcandidates will be comfortable with computers. At a minimum, they should understand one or more operating systems,spreadsheets, database managers, presentation programs, and wordprocessors.  As part of their trainingthey will be required to become proficient in the use of one or more advancedstatistical analysis software packages. Six Sigma Black Belts work to extractactionable knowledge from an organization's information warehouse.  To ensure access to the needed information,Six Sigma activities should be closely integrated with the information systems(IS) of the organization.  Obviously, theskills and training of Six Sigma Black Belts must be enabled by an investmentin software and hardware.  It makes nosense to hamstring these experts by saving a few dollars on computers orsoftware.

GreenBelt

Green Belts areSix Sigma project leaders capable of forming and facilitating Six Sigma teamsand managing Six Sigma projects from concept to completion.  Green Belt training consists of five daysof classroom training and is conducted in conjunction with Six Sigmaprojects.  Training covers projectmanagement, quality management tools, quality control tools, problem solving,and descriptive data analysis.  Six Sigmachampions should attend Green Belt training. Usually, Six Sigma Black Beltshelp Green Belts define their projects prior to the training, attend trainingwith their Green Belts, and assist them with their projects after the training.

StaffingLevels and Expected Returns

As stated earlierin this article, the number of full time personnel devoted to Six Sigma is notlarge. Mature Six Sigma programs, such as those of Motorola, GeneralElectric, Johnson & Johnson, AlliedSignal, and others average aboutone-percent of their workforce as Black Belts. There is usually about oneMaster Black Belts for every ten Black Belts, or about 1 Master Black Belt per1,000 employees. A Black Belt will typically complete 5 to 7 projects per year.Project teams are led by Green Belts, who, unlike Black Belts and MasterBlack Belts, are not employed full time in the Six Sigma program.Black Belts are highly prized employees and are often recruited for keymanagement positions elsewhere in the company. After Six Sigma has been inplace for three or more years, the number of former Black Belts tends tobe about the same as the number of active Black Belts.

Estimated savingsper project varies from organization to organization.  Reported results average about US$150,000 toUS$243,000. Note that these are not the huge mega-projects pursued byRe-engineering. Yet, by completing 5 to 7 projects per year per Black Belt, thecompany will add in excess of US$1 million per year per Black Belt to itsbottom line .

Implementationof Six Sigma

After over twodecades of experience with quality improvement, there is now a solid body of scientific research regarding the experience of thousandsof companies implementing major programs such as Six Sigma. Researchers havefound that successful deployment of Six Sigma involves focusing on a smallnumber of high-leverage items. The steps required to successfully implementSix Sigma are well-documented.

1.       Successfulperformance improvement must begin with senior leadership. Start by providingsenior leadership with training in the principles and tools they need toprepare their organization for success. Using their newly acquired knowledge,senior leaders direct the development of a management infrastructure to supportSix Sigma. Simultaneously, steps are taken to "soft-wire" theorganization and to cultivate an environment for innovation and creativity.This involves reducing levels of organizational hierarchy, removing proceduralbarriers to experimentation and change, and a variety of other changes designedto make it easier to try new things without fear of reprisal.

2.       Systemsare developed for establishing close communication with customers, employees,and suppliers. This includes developing rigorous methods of obtainingand evaluating customer, employee and supplier input. Base line studies areconducted to determine the starting point and to identify cultural, policy, andprocedural obstacles to success.

3.       Trainingneeds are rigorously assessed. Remedial skills education is provided to assurethat adequate levels of literacy and numeracy are possessed by all employees.Top-to-bottom training is conducted in systems improvement tools, techniques,and philosophies.

4.       Aframework for continuous process improvement is developed, along with a systemof indicators for monitoring progress and success. Six Sigma metrics focus onthe organization's strategic goals, drivers, and key business processes.

5.       Businessprocesses to be improved are chosen by management, and by people with intimateprocess knowledge at all levels of the organization. Six Sigma projects areconducted to improve business performance linked to measurable financialresults. This requires knowledge of the organization's constraints.

6.      Six Sigma projects are conducted by individual employees and teamsled by Green Belts and assisted by Black Belts.

Although the approach is simple,it is by no means easy. But the results justify the effort expended. Researchhas shown that firms that successfully implement Six Sigma perform better invirtually every business category, including return on sales, return oninvestment, employment growth, and share price increase.

Picture

  1. Jacob Nielson s Book
  2. KEN LEWIS ARTICLE

 

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Alternative Methods Of Input

 

                                                Alternative Methods Of Input

• Devices for the Hand
• Optical Input Devices
• Audio-Visual (Multimedia) Input Devices


                                           Alternative Input Devices – Devices for the Hand

• Pens

• Touch Screens

• Game Controlers


                                          Devices for the Hand - Pens

•With a pen-based system, you use an electronic pen
to write on the screen and choose commands.

•Pens are common input devices for handheld
computers, like “personal digital assistants (PDAs).”

•Pens are handy for making notes or selecting
commands, not for inputing a lot of text.



                                        Devices for the Hand - Touch Screens

• Touch-screen systemsaccept input directly through
the monitor.

• Touch screens use sensors to detect the touch of a
finger. They are useful where environmental
conditionsprohibit the use of a keyboard or mouse.

• Touch-screen systems are useful for selecting options
from menus.

                                      Devices for the Hand - Game Controlers

• The two primary types of game controlers are
joysticks and game pads.

• Game pads usualy provide controls for each hand.

• Joysticks are popular for flight simulator and
driving games.

                                     Alternative Input Devices –Optical Input Devices

•Bar Code Readers

•Image Scanners and OCR

                                  Optical Input Devices - Bar Code Readers

•Bar code readers can read bar codes—paterns of
printed bars.

•The reader emits light, which reflects of the bar code
and into a detector in the reader. The detector
translates the code into numbers.

•Flatbed bar code readers are commonly found in
supermarkets. Courier services often use handheld
readers.


                               Optical Input Devices –Image Scanners and OCR

•Image scanners digitize printed images for storage and
manipulation in a computer.

•A scanner shines light onto the image and interprets
the reflection.

•Optical character recognition (OCR) software
translates scanned text into editable electronic
documents.

                              Alternative Input Devices –Audio-Visual (Multimedia) Input Devices


•Microphones and Speech Recognition

•Video Input


                           Audio-Visual (Multimedia) Input Devices -Microphones and Speech Recognition

•Microphones can accept auditory input. A
microphone requires a sound card in the PC.

•A sound card can digitize analog sound signals, and
convert digital sound signals to analog form.

•With speech recognition software, you can use your
microphone to dictate text, navigate programs, and
choose commands.

                         Audio-Visual (Multimedia) Input Devices –Video Input

•PC video cameras digitize ful-motion images.

•Digital cameras capture stil images.

•These cameras breakimages into pixels and store
data about each pixel.

•Video images may be compressed to use less memory
and storage space.

********************************************************************************

 

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Vulnerability in Windows URL Handling

In mid Novemebr Microsoft issued a patch fixes a critical flaw found inWindows XP and Windows Server 2003 systems, which have Internet Explorer 7 installed.

Before that, cyber criminals have been knocking out spam messagesthat try to install spyware when users clicks the link. Criminal and hackers have been targeting this vulnerabilityto break into the machines and steal data. The vulnerabiluty is not found in Windows Vista. Microsoft terms this vulnerability as critical in nature, this may be called "the URL vulnerability" or "PDF vulnerability".

Solution:

Click here to know more about this.

Thnaks ,Please make comment on this.

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Boost Foreground Applications

XP already does have a slight bias towards the foreground app,    can increase it further with this simple registry edit:
     Open Regedit and navigate to 'HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\PriorityControl'
     Modify 'Win32PriorityControl' and give it a decimal value of 38.



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CORPORATE TAX PLANNING

CORPORATE TAX PLANNING

STUDYMATERIAL

 

There are two certainties in this world: Death & Tax.

 

Unavoidable

Reduce it

How to do that?

Understand Tax Laws and apply

Why to understand and how to apply?

 

Illustrations [in the context of individuals]

 

§      Give money to spouse and spouse should purchase/construct houseproperty which can be used for self-purpose to avoid deeming provisions of Sec.27.

§      Transfer of house property to son’s wife or minor grand child(son’s son) without adequate consideration would attract provisions of Sec. 64.Because sec. 27 does not cover these two transfers (only spouse and minor child(not being a married daughter) are covered. So, if the property is underself-occupation, then nil income will be clubbed.

§      Transfer income yielding assets to spouse in exchange of non-incomeassets so that the question of adequate consideration is satisfied.

§      Create income-yielding assets from income of assets transferred tospouse.

§      Employing spouse in a sister concern of the entity where theassessee has substantial interest would help avoiding clubbing.

                                                                

 

                                                                 C T P ?












 

 

 

 


                 Companies                                 Choosing amongalternatives

 

 

Price paid for buying civilization

 

SCOPE: Not only corporateentities, but all come under the purview of CTP (contrary to the common belief)

Knowledge of taxation is animportant ingredient in any financial decision-making. And, in the field of taxplanning Direct Tax laws is the most crucial input. Income Tax Act is the primefield of study in this context. The interpretation process and demonstration ofapplication would equip us with the art of getting into other legislationsalso. Nonetheless, holistic approach, wherever necessary, would be taken tocomprehend decision situations involving knowledge of multiple pieces oflegislation.

TAXPLANNING

‘Taking complete legitimatebenefit of all deductions, exemptions, allowances and rebates so that taxliability is minimised.’

Doctrine of Form: Westminster principle:literally and strictly

Doctrine of substance:intention (upto the courts, not to the revenue)

 

TAXAVOIDANCE: Use of colourable devices, Spirit of law is defeated[misrepresenting facts]

Colourable devices: spirit isviolated

Ex. Sec. 80 IA: Assembly ofparts in a backward area.

 A  Raman & Co. [SC]: Avoidance of taxliability by so arranging commercial affairs that charge of tax is distributedis not prohibited. Effectiveness of the device depends not upon considerationof morality, but the operation of the Income Tax Act. Legislative injunction inthe taxing statute may not, except on peril of penalty, be violated but it maylawfully be circumvented.

 

Change in Judicial view: Yettax laws are social laws (Mcdowell’s case- transferring the excise liability tobuyer so that sales tax liability is reduced): Justice Reddy…. The ingeniousattempts to rationalise and legitimise tax avoidance have always fascinated andamused me and made me wonder how ready the minds are to adapt themselves anddiscover excuses to dip into the treasury.

TAXEVASION: Illegal avoidance, both spirit and letter are violated

 

STAGES IN TAXING STATUTE

A.  Chargeability: By express enactment, can not be inferred

B.  Assessment: Quantifying chargeability

C.   Collection: TDS, Advance tax, Self-assessment tax (under IT Act )

 

DEEM – A LEGAL FICTION

What is the meaning of ‘deem’?

Why is it necessary? Ex. –deemed owner of house property

 

INTERPRETATIONOF STATUTE

Statute: Written will of legislaturesolemnly expressed according to the form necessary to constitute it as the lawof the land.

 

NEED: English literature wouldhave been much poorer if English language could have been such that statutecould be drafted with divine precision.

 

RULESOF INTERPRETATION:

A.  LITERAL RULE: ordinary, natural and grammatical meaning:

If the provision is free fromambiguity, plain meaning must be ascribed to the words used without importingor subtracting anything from the given words. If a narrow interpretation wouldemerge which cannot serve the manifest purpose of the act, then a broad meaningcan be ascribed. (Ex. Sec. 173 (1) of the Companies Act, 1956: The nature ofthe concern or interest of the director or manager of a company in the subjectmatter of the proposed motion has to be disclosed. Here we cannot confine theinterest only to monetary interest alone.)

 

B.GOLDEN RULE: Rule ofreasonable construction: If application of literal rule yields absurd result bywhich object sought to be achieved would be defeated, words may be modified toproduce sensible meaning. It should not be guess work.

 

C.MISCHIEF RULE/ RULE OFBENEFICIAL CONSTRUCTION: suppress the mischief and advance the remedy.

Heydon’s case: Regard shouldbe given to

i)      the earlier mischief for which the earlier law did not provide anysolution

ii)   and the true intent of the present legislation with its remedy tothe mischief

 

D.RULE OF HARMONIOUSCONSTRUCTION

When two or more provisions ofthe cat are in conflict with each other, they have to be understood in such amanner that all have to be conjointly satisfied. [Ex. Sec. 210 (date of balancesheet shall not precede the date of meeting by more than six months) and 166(1)(gap between two AGMs should not be more than 15 months)]

 

E.EJUSDEM GENERIS: of the samekind or species

If there is apparent conflict between two provisions, special oneprevails.

General words following specific words have to draw their colourfrom the specific words [You can keep dogs, cats, cows, buffaloes and otheranimals (not a lion)]

If the particular words used exhaust the whole genus, then thegeneral words can cover a larger genus.

 

B.  EXPRESSIONS LIKE ‘MAY’, ‘SHALL’, ‘OR’, ‘AND’:mandatory or directory?

 

AIDS TOINTERPRETATION OF STATUTE

 



 


Internal (what is within thebody of the act)        External(external to the body of the act)

 

INTERNAL AIDS TOINTERPRETATION OF STATUTE:

§       LongTitle is a part of the act (short title only identifies the act)

§       Preamble:scope, object and purpose of the act, but can not override the plain words ofthe act.

§       Headingand title of a chapter: preamble to the sections

§       Marginalnotes: in India,they cannot be referred to.

§       Definitionalsections / clauses

§       Illustrationsare not a part of the section, but definitely a part of the act. But, theycannot expand or curtail the ambit of the section.

§       Proviso:exception to the section.

§       Explanation:is to be read in harmony with the main section and clarifies its meaning

§       Schedules:to be read together with the act. If they are in conflict with the act, actprevails.

 

EXTERNAL AIDS TOINTERPRETATION OF STATUTE:

§       Earlieracts, historical settings

§       Dictionarymeaning

§       Foreigndecisions

 

 

FUNDA

 

1.   Act, Ordinance, Rules

2.   Structure of an Act – Chapter, Sections, Sub-sections, Clauses,Sub-clauses, Provisos, Illustration, etc.

3.   Deductions, Allowances, Rebates, Relief, Exemption, etc.

4.   Benevolent circular – Binding force of a circular

5.   Heads of Income & Sources of Income, GTI, Total Income

6.   Reason to believe v. Reason to Suspect

7.   Application of mind

8.   Principle of unjust enrichment

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